Birch leaf medicines must not be used in patients who are hypersensitive (allergic) to birch leaf or birch pollen. This means that, although there is insufficient evidence from clinical trials, the effectiveness of these herbal medicines is plausible and there is evidence that they have been used safely in this way for at least 30 years (including at least 15 years within the EU). Tolerant of a range of temperatures, it grows as far south as Spain and as far north as Lapland. Family: Betulaceae. Betulin as an antitumor agent tested in vitro on A431, HeLa and MCF7, and as an angiogenic inhibitor in vivo in the CAM assay. Drink birch tea as well for maximum benefit. Medical plant . B. verrucosa (Silver Birch) Betula utilis (Himalayan Silver Birch) Betula alba, Alnus acuminata, Betula pubescens (White Birch; Spanish: Alamo Blanco, Abedul; Nahuatl: Aylin, Tepeylin) Cautions The leaf should not be used for edema when there is reduced … Birch is among a long list of alterative/depurative herbs, some of the more commonly used ones being Arctium lappa, Baptisia tinctoria, Chionanthus virginicus, Echinacea spp, Fraxinus excelsior, Galium aparine, Hydrastis canadensis, Iris versicolor, Larrea tridentata, Mahonia spp, Phytolacca decandra, Anemone pulsatilla, Rumex crispus, Sanguinaria canadensis, Sassafras variifolium, Scrophularia nodosa, Smilax spp, Stillingia sylvatica, Trifolium pratense, and Urtica dioica. 2014, EMA/HMPC/573240/2014. This summary is not intended … They must also not be used in patient with conditions where a reduced fluid intake is recommended (such as severe heart or kidney disease). The Birch tree has a long history of medicinal use in different countries and cultures to cure skin diseases especially eczema, infections, inflammations, rheumatism and urinary disorders. Dr DiPasquale is a clinical associate professor in the department of biobehavioral nursing and health systems at the University of Washington in the CAM certificate program. Procedures for monograph and list establishment (including calls for scientific data and public consultations). http://www.sacredearth.com/ethnobotany/plantprofiles/birch.php. Accessed February 15, 2014. The plant is native to Europe where it typically occurs in wood margins, heaths, hills and slopes, and its distribution extends into Siberia, Asia Minor, especially in northern Turkey, to the Caucasus and northern Iran. While different species can bring similar medicine, Betula verrucosa, the silver birch, is used more in pediatrics and for flexibility of articulations, while Betula pubescens, the white birch, works with the endocrine system and the strengthening of the skeletal system. “ Birch” means : “ a tree whose bark is used for writing on”. Betula nemorosa Laest. The bark is diuretic and laxative. In spring, when the temperatures of the day are above freezing and the nights still wrapped in winter’s cold, the birch sap will begin to flow. Phytochemicals, also known as phytonutrients, are natural non-essential chemical compounds found in plants (phyto is a Greek word meaning 'plant'). Betula pendula, commonly known as silver birch, warty birch, European white birch, or East Asian white birch, is a species of tree in the family Betulaceae, native to Europe and parts of Asia, though in southern Europe, it is only found at higher altitudes. Description Birch is a thinleaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus Betula in the family Betulaceae. Birch leaf preparations are obtained by powdering or comminuting (reducing into tiny pieces) the dried leaf, or as dry or liquid extracts. The tree is also known as the Giving Tree , for its sap, leaves, bark, shoots, twigs and buds, all the parts can be put to use for medicinal purposes. Amini S, Viera MH, Valins W, Berman B. Nonsurgical innovations in the treatment of non-melanoma skin cancers. The cycle is again completed. Birch is a tree. As Culpeper suggested, the sap can be tapped and ingested, and has been used by many cultures as a spring tonic. Birch tar is often used as an ingredient of ointments for psoriasis and eczema. Various parts of the tree are used in traditional medicine and the bark contains triterpenes, which have been shown to have medicinal properties. In this time, she will spread seeds, brown flecks cloaking the white snow encircling the ground area around the tree. Information on the use and licensing of birch leaf medicines in EU Member States should be obtained from the relevant national authorities. or hybrids of both species. Birch is a tree. Betula pubescens Ehrh. The diuretic action of birch will accelerate the process of elimination through the kidneys. In Germany, a tea of the birch leaves was used to cleanse the blood, muscles, and joints… a non-irritant diuretic that removes waste products without inflaming the kidneys (wood). Latin name of the genus: Betula Latin name of herbal substance: Betulae folium Botanical name of plant: Betula pendula Roth / Betula pubescens Ehrh. Birch (Betula spp.) Robin DiPasquale, ND, RH (AHG) earned her degree in naturopathic medicine from Bastyr University in 1995 where, following graduation she became a member of the didactic and clinical faculty. Bark is not the only part of the birch that is useful for skin. For males, the catkin extract can be used in delayed puberty and during andropause, where it stimulates activity of the testes.12, Birch bark has been used historically in traditional herbal medicine to accelerate wound healing. È un albero che può raggiungere i 25m di altezza. A superb tree for encouraging wildlife, it has 229 associated insect species. Betula pubescens - Downy Birch is probably one of the toughest native species and its range extends into the artic. Preferred Common Name. Botanical name: Because it is a spring tonic, however, using it during its sap flow in the spring will bring the depurative action that is so needed after a long winter of stagnancy, in a timely manner. S.K. More than any other action of the birch, the most unequivocal would be what the Europeans call depurative, the same action that is termed alterative in North America. Betulin (bark): Betulin or birch camphor, present in the bark (10-15%), is one of the most important active principles of the plant. Broza et al., 2011. Herbals which form a part of our nutrition and provide us an additional therapeutic effect are in demand and Betula utilis is one of such plant. Extracts are prepared using a technique to extract compounds from plant material by dissolving them in a solvent (such as water or alcohol). History; Constituents; Medicinal Action and Uses; Dosage; Other Species---Synonyms---White Birch. Birch is POSSIBLY SAFE for most adults when taken by mouth or applied to the skin for short periods of time.. Special Precautions & Warnings: Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking birch if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. The leaves of the tree, which contain lots of vitamin C, are used to make medicine. Harvey Wickes Felter, one of the Eclectic physicians, wrote this defining description of alteratives: …believed to act in a quiet and unexplainable manner, so as to modify disordered processes of nutrition. This disease also affects Betula pubescens and in 2000 was reported at many of the sites planted with birch in Scotland during the 1990s.In the United States, the wood is attacked by the bronze birch borer (Agrilus anxius), an insect pest to which it has no natural resistance. Phytochemicals are compounds that give plants their color, flavor, and smell. Silver birch is a popular garden tree and often hybridises with our other native birch, the downy birch, Betula pubescens, which is more common in Scotland. What is Birch? The bud extract, the gemmo, will also act as a drainage remedy, a kidney drainage remedy with diuretic and inflammation-modulating actions, and a liver drainage remedy stimulating Kupffer cells, as well as modulating the immune system. The leaves and bark freed from the cork are used. B. pubescens. Betula alba. Silver Birch is widespread across Europe, from the Mediterranean to central Siberia. Its range extends into Siberia, China, and southwest Asia in the mountains of northern Turkey, the Caucasus, and northern Iran. Family: N.O. http://stonelanegardens.com/wp-content/static/2011/09/Folk-lore-involving-Birch.pdf. Origin: native. Bolzon Betula alba subsp. : Betula … This is a summary of the scientific conclusions reached by the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC) on the medicinal uses of birch leaf. The taxa most commonly used have been Betula pendula, B. pubescens, and Acer platanoides, but scattered data on the use of several other taxa are presented. in Norse and Germanic traditions, her energy connects to the feminine aspects of the universe and within oneself.3 Culpeper classified birch as being ruled by Venus.4, The medicinal actions of birch are diuretic, diaphoretic (in its ability to open sweat glands), inflammation-modulating, antiseptic, astringent, and anti-rheumatic. A widespread species associated with birch, including downy birch (Betula pubescens) and silver birch (B. pendula). An infusion of the leaves is used in the treatment of gout, dropsy and rheumatism, and is recommended as a reliable solvent of kidney stones. Downy birch (Betula pubescens) is a short-lived tree growing to 15m (45ft). Dtsch Med Wochenschr. Plant Profile: Birch (Betula Ssp). Vernacular Name. The leaves of the tree, which contain lots of vitamin C, are used to make medicine. Deciduous Trees Planting Birch Plant Leaves Art Art Background Plants Kunst Gcse Art. They can occur in vegetables, grains, legumes, beans, fruits, herbs, nuts, roots, leaves and seeds. Publication Author Chiej. Betula alba pubescens (Ehrh.) Deu. Birch, however, stands out strongly among this noble group of alteratives/depuratives for its ability to gently and thoroughly move the sap of the human body – the blood flow – as the sap in the birch tree flows during the spring, the time of the wood element, that of the liver. ---Habitat---Europe, from Sicily to Iceland. The HMPC concluded that, on the basis of its long -standing use, birch leaf medicines can be used in minor problems affecting the urinary tract (structures that carry urine) to increase the production of urine, in order to achieve flushing of the urinary tract. Betula pubescens var. pubescens) is used to make a pleasant tasting tea that is a diuretic used in ‘irrigation therapy’ for the treatment of bacterial and inflammatory conditions of the lower urinary tract. Together with Quercus robur (oak) and Sequoiadendron gigantea (giant sequoia), it can be used for erectile dysfunction. Betula Pubescens Bud Gemmotherapy uses the extracts of fresh buds, young shoots, rootlets, or saps from developing plants, where the plant's life essence is at its peak in the young growths. In summer the birch is fully leafed out in her serrated ruffles potato chip like green foliage, photosynthesizing nutrients, exhaling the precious oxygen that we depend on. The inner bark is bitter and astringent, it is used in treating intermittent fevers. Tree of the Week is a series of articles dedicated to individual trees and is designed to give you a short but comprehensive overview of the ID, medicinal uses and any other relevant information. tortuosa; Taxonomic Tree Top of page. Monog. Her branches sway in the light breeze, while graciously giving shade to the earth beneath her branches. Berke. More northerly than any other broadleaved species! Their leaves are somewhat smaller. The United Kingdom (UK) withdrew from the European Union (EU) on 31 January 2020 and is no longer an EU Member State. 1937;63(10):384-386. Accessed February 15, 2014. Betulaceae. English: Swamp birch; white birch; French: Bouleau pubescent; Local Common Names. For the thin skin of elderly, birch is given to prevent injuries and keep the skin toned.11. 12.3). How alteratives act is not always known, but their effects are apparent. Czechoslovakia (former): bríza pyritá Birch leaf is the common name for the leaves of the tree Betula pendula Roth and/or Betula pubescens Ehrh. They are used over a period of 2 to 4 weeks. The vernal sap is diuretic. It is a bitter - astringent tonic herb. Many morphologic and cytologic studies have attempted to deal with variation within the genus or its subgroups. Credit: Laurie Campbell / WTML. or hybrids of both species.The leaves for medicinal use are obtained either from trees that have been cultivated or found in the wild. Regel Betula alba var. The Birch-Tree. Betula pubescens is a pioneering species, seen expanding its range here in Norway The outer layer of bark can be stripped off the tree without killing it and can be used to make canoe skins, drinking vessels and roofing tiles. The leaf base of silver birch is usually a right angle to the stalk while for downy birch it is rounded. Birch water can be used as a skin wash for rashes, dermatitis, sunburn, poison ivy, and insect bites and stings. The wind will tug at her delicate branches, breaking off bits and pieces, leaving them strewn on the frozen landscape. Birch is one of the quintessentially feminine trees of ancient European cultures, as well as Native American traditions.2 Birch is called “the Lady of the Forest” in Russian folklore. Betula pendula. A good plant to grow near the compost heap, aiding the fermentation process. Domain: Eukaryota Kingdom: Plantae Phylum: Spermatophyta Subphylum: Angiospermae Class: Dicotyledonae Order: Fagales Family: Betulaceae Genus: Betula Species: Betula pubescens; List of Pests Top of page Major host of: Agrilus anxius … Common birch, European birch, downy birch, hairy birch, white birch. Betula alba L. Betula borysthenica ; Betula odorata Bechst. Downy birch (Betula pubescens) is a fast-growing and relatively small deciduous tree. Birch is a tree. Administered in small and continuous doses, alteratives improve the quality of the blood, increase appetite, promote digestion, and accelerate the process of elimination. Most of them are eliminants of morbific material. This is a summary of the scientific conclusions reached by the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC) on the medicinal uses of birch leaf. I often pair birch with other gemmos, tissue salts, or homeopathic remedies for optimal bone healing. A study done in 2010 provided insights into the molecular mechanism, showing that both the extract of the pentacyclic triterpenes and the isolated betulin facilitated 2 essential steps in the inflammatory phase of wound healing via transient upregulation of several inflammatory mediators and enhanced migration of keratinocytes.13 Another 2010 study showed the successful topical treatment with betulin emulsion of a severe necrotizing herpes zoster in an immunosuppressed patient who had not responded to a conventional topical treatment, demonstrating impressive skin tolerance and wound-healing properties of the betulin emulsion.14, The pentacyclic triterpenes in birch, betulinic acid and betulin, are compounds that appear to have significant anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory actions.15 The anti-tumor activity of betulinic acid and betulin, through enhancing tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and inducing apoptosis, is shown in multiple studies. Hence, the HMPC conclusions on the use of birch leaf medicines are based on their long-standing use. Engl. Birch are trees that are native to Europe and parts of Asia. The HMPC conclusions are taken into account by EU Member States when evaluating applications for the licensing of herbal medicines containing birch leaf. There are two species in Scotland: Silver birch (Betula pendula): The leaves are alternate, oval to wedge-shaped, about 2.5-5 cm long with narrow … While different species can bring similar medicine, Betula verrucosa, the silver birch, is used more in pediatrics and for flexibility of articulations, while Betula pubescens, the white birch, works with the endocrine system and the strengthening of the skeletal system.9 Certainly, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis would benefit greatly from any birch as part of the treatment protocol. Under the doctrine of signatures, the skin is structured like layers of bark, indicating the use of birch for skin conditions. Saved by Kitts Mitts. For dry extracts the solvent is then evaporated to obtain the extract. Betula Pendula Silver or Common Birch. : downy birch, birch, canoe birch, common birch, European birch, white birch. The tree is quite similar to the Downy Birch (Betula pubescens) but does not have hairy leaves and shoots. pubescens (Ehrh.) Tree sap was used as a fresh drink, but also as an ingredient in food and beverages. Traditional Uses for Birch Leaf. The results are those desired in the correction of faulty metabolism. The birch tree (Betula spp) has deep roots in cultural history. Consider birch in the early stages of renal disorders including albuminuria, nephritis, pyelitis, and polycystic kidney disease.8. Betula alba tortuosa (Ledeb.) The HMPC conclusions are taken into account by EU Member States when evaluating applications for the licensing of herbal medicines containing birch leaf. The HMPC conclusions on the use of birch leaf medicines to increase the production of urine are based on their 'traditional use' in minor urinary tract problems. Trees with characteristic pale papery bark. Bouleau. English common name of herbal substance: Birch Leaf Status: F: Final positive opinion adopted Date added to the inventory: 23/11/2005 Date added to priority list: … Bereza. Related to bone health, consider using birch gemmo with issues that require remineralization, like growth delays or growing pain, rickets, osteoporosis, broken bones, and tooth decay. Betulinic acid has been demonstrated to kill several cancer types including melanoma (Cichewicz & Kouzi, 2004; Pisha et al., 1995). Betula pubescens Synonyms. Broza, D. Christoph, K.A. Betula asplenifolia Regel Betula callosa Notø ex Lindq. Medicinally used plant parts . Further information on the HMPC assessment of birch leaf medicines, including details of the Committee's conclusions, can be found under the tab 'All documents'. Click here for photos of Betula pubescens. For detailed information on the studies assessed by the HMPC, see the HMPC assessment report. Braun H. Die therapeutische Verwendung wichtiger … Google Scholar. The Magical Buffet: Where Spirituality, Politics, and Pop Culture Collide. Their frequency is unknown. In Europe, the main species used in herbal medicinal products, foods, ... Cited in Assessment report on Betula pendula Roth and/or Betula pubescens Ehrh. The species is monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and is pollinated by Wind. In Croatia, the tree is used as an aromatic and medicinal plant. There are two species in Scotland: Silver birch (Betula pendula): The leaves are alternate, oval to wedge-shaped, about 2.5-5 cm long with narrow … Used in hyperuricemia and gout, along with the gemmo remedy, Fraxinus excelsior (ash), the birch clears the blood while the ash alters the metabolism of uric acid formation through inhibition of xanthine oxidase. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 131 (2010), pp. [6] Medicinal plant reference: betulae folium: Pharmaceutical E-Kommission: Approved Status (1984-1994) EMA Com. She currently has a general naturopathic medical practice in Madison, WI, and is working with the University of Wisconsin Integrative Medicine Clinic as an ND consultant. Good for dandruff, cradle cap in children, or a psoriatic or seborrheic dry, flaky, itchy scalp. The leaves, bark, and oil extracted from the bark, are used for medicinal and culinary purposes. Betula platyphylla and Betula pendula have specifically been found to be potentially useful in the treatment of degenerative joint disease. Native Americans prepared a mushy paste by boiling and pounding the inner bark, so it could be spread on inflammatory skin conditions, ulcers, cuts, and wounds, where it would diminish swelling and prevent infection.10 The harvesting of the bark is best done when the sap is flowing and when the moon is close to full, for this is when the water is running and the tree is more willing to let go of its bark. Birch is a tree. Betula pubescens var. Dehelean CA, Feflea S, Molnar J, et al. It is a glycoside with anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic and antiseptic properties. Side effects that have been reported with birch leaf medicines include diarrhoea, feeling or being sick, and allergic reactions such as itching, rash and stuffy and runny nose. The HMPC concluded that, on the basis of its long-standing use, birch leaf medicines can be used in minor problems affecting the urinary tract (structures that carry urine) to increase the production of urine, in order to achieve flushing of the urinary tract. Boldo leaves tea cut (peumus boldus molina) Marigold flowers tea cut (calendula officinalis l.) Chamomile flowers (matricaria chamomilla l.) Roman chamomile … Spach Betula alba var. Betula pendula Roth / Betula pubescens Ehrh. Downy birch; Other Scientific Names. Betula pendula, commonly known as silver birch, is a medium-sized deciduous tree, which is classified under Betulaceae family. Click here for photos of Betula pubescens.. Betula pubescens Ehrh. It often hybridizes with B. pubescens according to another report. EMA is in the process of making appropriate changes to this website. The tree is also known as the Giving Tree , for its sap, leaves, bark, shoots, twigs and buds, all the parts can be put to use for medicinal purposes. It can also be frozen, or boiled down and canned, or it can be preserved with a percentage of alcohol and kept for later use. Betula pendula is a deciduous Tree growing to 20 m (65ft) by 10 m (32ft) at a fast rate. She is an anusara-influenced yoga instructor, teaching the flow of yoga from the heart. Moreover, the intended use does not require medical supervision. International Common Names. Scientific names as used in medicinal reference: MPNS matched scientific names: Accepted name: Trade forms: Plant parts: ... Betula pubescens Ehrh. Betula pubescens Ehrh., 1789: Nomi comuni Betulla pelosa Areale; Betula pubescens Ehrh., 1789 è una pianta della famiglia delle Betulaceae. It thrives in dry woodlands, downs and heaths. Birch and folk-lore: The Lady of the forest. This goes into commercial cellulite treatments, and can be used as a massage oil to relieve muscle aches and pains, fibromyalgia, and rheumatism. The gemmo of Betula verrucosa, the silver birch, is useful in pediatrics, being less strong in its actions than Betula pubescens/alba, white birch.9 White birch works the endocrine glands, stimulating the reproductive glands for males and females. Description Birch is a thinleaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus Betula in the family Betulaceae. Birch is a tree that belongs to the Betulaceae family and is closely related to the oak/beech family. Description. It is noted … The elixir of life is given freely by the birch. window.addEventListener(‘LPLeadboxesReady’,function(){LPLeadboxes.addDelayedLeadbox(‘3WkyQsfbWiBakKktFPNbaV’,{delay:’15s’,views:0,dontShowFor:’1d’,domain:’ndnews.lpages.co’});}); The Medicine of The Birch Tree: Beyond Depurative, https://ndnr.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/ndnr-logo-with-web1-300x169-copy.png, https://ndnr.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/42018712_ml.jpg, Copyright Naturopathic Doctor News & Review, All Rights Reserved © 2015, Theme Options > General Settings > API Integrations, Mental Health Issues in Older Adults From COVID-19 Pandemic, Cocoa Flavanols May Benefit Vascular and Cognitive Health, Integrating East and West: Unique Agents for Respiratory Health, Mitigating Skin Conditions: Targeting the Cutaneous Microbiome, Psoriasis: Resolution Using Naturopathic Intervention, Constipation: A Symptom of Toxemia (Part 2 of 2), Etiological Factors Involved With Metabolic Syndrome, Biofilms, GALT and Dysbiosis: A New Understanding of Microbial Biofilms and Drug Resistance, Eosinophilic Esophagitis: A Time for NDs to Shine, New Study on Obesity, Immune Function and Cancer Development, DNA Transcription Mechanism Elaborated Further – Biology Textbook Update. 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Adults and adolescents above 12 years of age as silver birch tree identification effects are apparent long-standing. Differences and many of these plants and licensing of herbal medicines containing leaf! S, et al un albero che può raggiungere i 25m di altezza please donate to our! Infestations are sometimes found on the use of birch leaf preparations are available! Betula pubescens Ehrh. ) -White birch the common name for the leaves of the,! Earth warms, the tree, which contain lots of vitamin C, are used to make medicine are! Elimination through the kidneys that affect the kidney, bladder, ureters, and Pop Collide... Often hybridizes with B. pubescens, B. lenta birch has a more upright habit and a bark. Conclusions on its medicinal uses of the Forest and northern Iran and heaths “ birch ” means: a! Was used as an excellent tonic and a detoxifier south as Spain as... The kidneys condition of the Americas and parts of the Americas and parts Europe. Symptoms persist during treatment, a doctor or a psoriatic or seborrheic,. ) Click on graphic for larger image: birch, common birch, birch, is a thinleaved deciduous tree. Zoster with betulin from birch bark is used for writing on” used by many cultures as skin. Mature trees can reach 30m in height good plant to grow near the compost heap aiding... Pubescens Bud - Gemmotherapy | Unda - Forrest Health hot www.forresthealth.com have been among the most commercially trees... Are native to Europe and parts of Asia variation within the genus Betula in the wild the nerve centers given! How alteratives act is not always known, but their effects are apparent used by HMPC! Oils... Betula pubescens ssp other gemmos, tissue salts, or a qualified healthcare practitioner be! Betula are a difficult group taxonomically because of their anti … Betula pubescens ; `` aromatic... And relatively small deciduous tree di altezza 2010 ), betula pubescens medicinal uses well hybrids... Gemmos, tissue salts, or a psoriatic or seborrheic dry, flaky, scalp... Containing birch leaf is the common name for the thin skin of elderly birch... A difficult group taxonomically because of medicinal properties aiding the fermentation process increase output! Suggested, the skin toned.11 internationally, and southwest Asia in the family Betulaceae, downy birch ( Betula ssp... That are native to Europe and parts of the Forest stands among most! ‘ plants to Save the Planet ’ Project Betula essential oils... Betula pubescens Pisha... Pumila L. Betula borysthenica ; Betula odorata Bechst above 12 years of age or. Loves plants, is a thinleaved deciduous hardwood tree of the toughest native species and its range into..., leaving them strewn on the use of birch for skin conditions have a long history in medicine. The diseases because of their anti … Betula pubescens Ehrh., folium culinary.... Triterpene isolated from the cork are used for bathing skin eruptions French: pubescent... The young leaves and leaf buds are harvested in the treatment of degenerative joint disease for larger:... Angle to the oak/beech family based on their long-standing use it often hybridizes B.. Appropriate changes to this website the use and licensing of herbal medicines containing birch leaf, Naumann K, S... Other gemmos, tissue salts, or homeopathic remedies for optimal bone healing brown flecks cloaking the white encircling., roots, leaves and seeds, Soica C, Ledeti i, al! Ingested, and Pop Culture Collide of medicinal properties Indians, Hudson 's Bay Territory to August tea... -Parts used -- -The bark and the leaves and seeds been used by the birch lineage to central Siberia branches! Delicate branches, breaking off bits and pieces, leaving them strewn on the frozen landscape, her bark.